Tuesday, November 11, 2008

Beginning of Revolution

Almost directly after the British government's imposition of The Stamp Act, and continuing into the volatile climate of 1774 and 1775, Virginia colonists were making noises. Virginia native George Washington sought to tighten up the state militia as he saw it as the only real means to ensure a free government. Almost as if tongue in cheek (one of the offenses the crown made was to house British soldiers in public spaces) Washington added that the militia could take the place of government soldiers to ensure safety and defense and negate any taxes the crown might levy pertaining to those issues. Also, this would render a standing army in the state void [1].

1775 saw the First Continental Congress in Richmond, Virginia to discuss grievances against the crown. The beginning of the Virginia Resolutions were that the colony be put on the defense. In response Governor John Dunmore sought to seize the gunpowder supply in Williamsburg. Colonists gathered in the hundreds, aiming to retake the powder. Dunmore responded with threats to free negro slaves and burn the town to the ground. When he regained his composure he compensated in payment for the powder and outlawed Patrick Henry, a Virginian who had uttered during the Congress that anymore offenses from the government would be retaliated with gunfire [2].

As a result Lord North offered a "peace" offering to the colony, which it rejected around the same time Governor Dunmore attacked a ship in the York river. The colonial reply was furthering The Virginia Resolutions which stated taxation upon the colony could only occur under adequate representation in Parliament (which the colonists claimed to be null). Thomas Jefferson, one of the main arbiters of the meeting, said:

We should consider such Reconciliation the greatest of all human blessings. With these dispositions we entered into consideration of that Resolution: we examined it minutely; we viewed it in every point of light which we were able to place it; and with pain and disappointment we ultimately declare it only changes form of oppression without lightening its burthen. That we cannot close with the terms of that Resolution for these Reasons. (Commager 1995, 110) [3].

With such acts of defiance, Virginia governor John Dunmore declared martial law and offered freedom to slaves who joined the crown's cause:

I have thought fit to issue this my Proclamation, hereby declaring, that until the aforesaid good purposes can be obtained, I do, in virtue of the power and authority to me given by His Majesty, determine to execute martial law, and cause the same to be executed throughout this colony. And to the end that peace and good order may sooner be restored, I do require every person capable of bearing arms to resort to His Majesty's standard, or be looked upon as traitors... I do hereby further decalre all indentured servants, Negroes or others, (appertaining to Rebels) free, that are able and willing to bear arms, they joining His Majesty's Troops as soon as may be, for more speedily reducing this colony to a proper sense of their duty to His Majesty's crown and diginty (Commager 1995, 111) [4].

With spiraling taxes it is obvious how merchants and farmers and the poor and just every day common folk were against British legislation enacting these taxes. Even among the rich planters there was hostility. They took credit and loans from London merchants at apparently high cost. As we see in even today's economy bad/high risk loans trickle down amongst the classes in a variety of ways. Such as the irrasicbility of the poor and middle class. While the planters brought debt upon themselves, allowing Londoners to profit and expand a financial empire abroad, they were still resentful. Whether their hostility towards the British were more altruistic or self serving is another thing [5].

Still there were Loyalists to the crown. Anglicans were generally pro-England. As a result their ministers were branded traitors, fleeing to Canada or back to England in some cases. The congregations were scandalized because of their pro-crown proclivities. Some sought out Protestant (generally pro-colony) denominations. Financially the Anglican church was left in dire straights. This was partly due to the low pay of ministers, but the socially adroit position of their wives coming from well to do families. The resulting stigma caused a deficit in this area [6].

Also, loyalists composed a battalion called the Queen's Rangers. They were composed of soldiers from the Queen's Own Royal Virginia Regiment, as well as some from New York and Connecticut. Many of these men were deserters from George Washington's command. Later in the war they would be responsible for the sacking of Richmond [7].

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1. Henrey Steele Commager and Richard B. Morris, The Spirit of Seventy-Six (New York: Da Capo Press, 1995), 105.

2. Commager, 106.

3. Commager, 110.

4. Commager, 111.

5. Jon Butler, Becoming America (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2000), 237.

6. Dorothy A. Mayes, Women In Early America (Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, 2004), 39.

7. Phyllis Ruth Blakeley and John N. Grant, Eleven Exiles (Canada: Dundurn Press, 1982), 292.

Tuesday, November 4, 2008

Economy, Migrant Fuel

Tobacco was the major export, and incredibly difficult to grow and process into a viable consumer product [1]. Prior to 1680 in Virginia the workforce consisted of indentured servants. By and large these were young men coming from England. The need for laborers was so high that Virginia workers sought a fee twice as high as in England and indentured servants were fresh off the boat. Depending on age they would be indentured to work 4 to 12 years for their masters, at which time they'd be given a stipend and allowed to seek their own land to work or own. However, that idyllic scenario didn't pan out in such a way most occasions. Tobacco was an incredibly profitable venture. Massive land holdings and wealth resided in a handful of planters. There were problems for poor planters such as scarcity of land or difficulty selling their own crops. Lower end freemen would end up working plantations they just were released from, starting their own in Virginia/Chespeake's hostile back country, or re-selling their indentures [2].

Despite slaves being present in Jamestown since 1619, the Africans were treated much the same as indentured servants [3]. 1664 legislation saw some Africans being recognized as slaves. Further laws limited black freedoms and opportunities and 1705 saw legislature banning interracial marriage, solidifying the African status as property in Virginia [4]. With a workforce residing in Virginia demanding inflated wages and a workforce reluctant to emigrate from England (stalled because of bad press stemming from Bacon's Rebellion), slavery became a viable alternative. Slavery means there is a sedentary workforce on the plantation, living there, working the land in awesome numbers, and breeding more slaves at minimal cost to the owner beyond purchasing fees [5].

Slave traders could make money in Virginia. Which means large planters were spending significant funds on slaves. By the late 17th century Dutch merchant ships containing slaves were making stops in the area. In the early 18th century British ships dealing exclusively in African slaves were making trips to Virginia to sell their captured human cargo [6].

Virginia planters' wealth simply grew from this. After 1680, between cash crops and slave owning, the wealth was stratified in a few positions of the upper echelon. Slave productivity catapulted yield, making the crop exports worth more, and in turn the worth of the crops made the slaves themselves worth more. The slaves on large plantations could be worth as much as the land itself. There was a major discrepancy between these wealthy plantation owners and poor workers. An even more marked discrepancy between both those groups and owned slaves existed [7].

Black Slaves were the biggest asset to the burgeoning economy after 1680. This group was also one of the largest immigrant populations, albeit cohered into migrating and working through violence. A second wave of indentured servants also arrived post-1720 to take opportunity in the job market. This time, instead of Englishmen looking for work, it was Scottish, Scotch-Irish in large numbers as well as French, German, and some Swiss. The main difference in this wave being an emphasis in skilled tradesman and workers the colony needed 100 years prior, instead of primarily farmers [8]. Even with the workforce and profits coming in, the economy/planters were flexible.The resilience and vitality of the economy was further illustrated between 1700 and 1720 when tobacco prices fell and farmers began growing grains, raising livestocks, and selling wood and naval stores. this drop in tobacco prices happened again between 1740 and 1745. Farmers bounced back again by planting wheat. The demand was so great that the exports floated Virginia and the Chesapeake [9].

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1. Anne Farrow, Joel Lang, and Jennifer Frank, Complicity (New York: Ballantine Books, 2005), 18.

2. Edmund S. Morgan, American Slavery, American Freedom (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1995), 216-234.

3. James Oliver Horton and Loius E. Horton, Slavery and the Making of America (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005), 27-29.

4. Hugh Thomas, The Slave Trade (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1999), 208.

5. Morgan, 216-234.

6. Thomas, 245.

7. Jon Butler, Becoming America (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2000), 79-82.

8. Butler, 19-23.

9. Butler, 60.

Friday, October 10, 2008

Powhatan-Anglo War

Tensions between the native Virginian Powhatan tribes and the English settlers were wrought tight from the beginning. The English were cocky, presumptuous about the Indians. Both sides were wary of the other. The first major set of conflicts (1609-1614 or so) arose as Chief Powhatan wanted more and more copper from the English in trade for corn until the value of the copper was meaningless; then he asked for guns in trade for corn [1]. Not willing to give the people they wished to subjugate weapons, and the Indians not willing to trade for anything else reasonably, the English took the food they needed by force [2]. The battles that erupted were not just the English needing food, but a more nuanced power struggle for the territory and a need for dominance of that area that neither side wished to relinquish [3].

These instances of violence between the two groups over the next decade were mainly bloody skirmishes, vicious ones at that, with periods of brief cease-fires [4]. However from November 1609 to May 1610 Powhatan's warriors surrounded Jamestown fort in an in-active siege, cutting the English off [5]. As a result the colonists' numbers diminished by 65%. The "siege" was lightened by spring due to the need for manpower to begin crops [6]. Lord Thomas De La Warr's relief ships sailed in to relieve the colonists and eventually re-strategizing, re-invigorating the group's efforts culminating in subduing the natives through firepower, fear, and the sheer numbers [7]. Further seperating hostiles from good Christian Englishmen were laws enacted that kept colonists from copulating or trading with Indians [8]. This is not to mention the renewed vigor De La Warr brought was tinged with religious fervor, a cleansing of the pagan indians by an altruistic Protestant body of Englishmen (just like they did to the Catholics) [9]. The English managed to come out on top from these conflicts.

By 1622 Chief Powhatan was dead, his brother the new chief, Opechankeno military commander, and whites furthered their encroachment upon Indian lands [10]. The settlers no longer sought any kind of native permission, no treaty, merely taking the land for their own devices. The second Anglo-Powhatan war was conceived by Opechankeno as a last ditch effort to ideally discourage any further colonization or emmigration, or to either drive the English out of Virginia or at least contain them to the Jamestown area [11]. Inter-tribal communications within the Indian confederacy enabled a coordinated attack on the out-laying plantations and farms of the colony area, resulting in a quarter of the population being killed [12]. The English retaliation was one of outright warfare. Their resolve was strong, a national decree allowed for the killing or pacification of the natives [13]. With the native force subdued, wow the English were allowed to use the land outright, without much worry of reprisal or complaint.

The third Powhatan lasted from 1644 to 1646 and was even more of a failure than the second as Opechankeno was captured and executed [14]. Like the second, this war was a set of frontier skirmishes that lasted a number of years [15]. After this war the English looked beyond the lines of Powhatan land and sought to expand and explore outside this territory to establish trade routes with other natives not of the Powhatan [16]. 1646 also saw Opechankeno's succesor, Necotowance sign a peace treaty handing over a majority of their land to the English in exchange for tax tributes and a right to occupy specific areas of land [17].

Some thirty years later, more disagreements arose still. In 1675 and 1676 Susquehannock raids, sparked by white aggression, occured in the west back country of Virginia where many of what was left of the Powhatan resided along with poorer planters and newcoming planters (angry that they couldn't obtain more land that was already the Powhatan remnants' by contract, and angry at Susquehannock attack). The local indians were caught in yet more English violence (at the wrong tribe) and more English desire to obtain land. What became known as Bacon's Rebellion, after ring-leader Nathanial Bacon, almost became an outright civil war between the English and was ended by government cavalry being brought in [18]. The final treaty to be signed lasted until the American Revolution for Independence. It was signed in 1677 by the Nottoway, Nansemond, Pamunkey, Weyanok tribes and oversaw Anglo-Indian relations [19].

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1-2. Gregory A. Waselkov, Peter H. Wood and M. Thomas Hatley, Powhatan's Mantle: Indians in the Colonial Southeast (Lincoln: U of Nebraska Press, 2006), 221-222.

3. Kevin R. Hardwick, Warren R. Hofstra, Virginia Reconsidered: New Histories of the Old Dominion (Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2003), 13.

4. Gregory A. Waselkov, Peter H. Wood and M. Thomas Hatley, Powhatan's Mantle: Indians in the Colonial Southeast (Lincoln: U of Nebraska Press, 2006), 221-222.

5-9. Kevin R. Hardwick, Warren R. Hofstra, Virginia Reconsidered: New Histories of the Old Dominion (Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2003), 24-26.

10. Camilla Townsend, Pocahontas and the Powhatan Dilemma (New York: Hill and Wang, 2004), 161-162.

11. Camilla Townsend, Pocahontas and the Powhatan Dilemma (New York: Hill and Wang, 2004), 171.

12. Camilla Townsend, Pocahontas and the Powhatan Dilemma (New York: Hill and Wang, 2004), 169-170.

13-14. Camilla Townsend, Pocahontas and the Powhatan Dilemma (New York: Hill and Wang, 2004), 173-174.

15. Kevin R. Hardwick, Warren R. Hofstra, Virginia Reconsidered: New Histories of the Old Dominion (Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2003), 12.

16. April Lee Hatfield, Atlantic Virginia: Intercolonial Relations in the Seventeenth Century (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2007), 24.

17.Camilla Townsend, Pocahontas and the Powhatan Dilemma (New York: Hill and Wang, 2004), 175.

18. April Lee Hatfield, Atlantic Virginia: Intercolonial Relations in the Seventeenth Century (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2007), 34.

Tuesday, October 7, 2008

Jamestown Inhabitants, Work

The ships bringing colonists to the New World were filled primarily with men. There were, actually two women that made a 1608 voyage. September 1608 saw gentlewoman Mistress Forest and her maid-servant, Anne Burras, attach themselves to the fledgling colony [1]. Young Anne Burras actually married a laborer by the name of John Layden, giving birth to the first English newborn, Temperance Yeardly, in the Americas. But, these were the only Caucasian women in the entire country at the time. Joan and Jane Pierce, and Thomasine Causey came to Virginia on subsequent voyages from England by 1610 [2]. Not much is known of women in Jamestown. Most of their names that traversed the ocean or died from the blight are forgotten to history. This was, after-all, a fairly male-centric society. What is known is that documents mention six of the 60 survivors of the disease and famine and Indian hostilities that afflicted the colony were women, including one infant (Burras' daughter) [3].

The women that came to Virginia were typically unskilled in farming. They were unskilled in hunting. In carpentry, in manual labor as well [4]. This meant they were unqualified to do much of anything unfortunately. Even something as simple as procuring a meal that didn't come off a plant. Unable to find their own sustenance, they were dependent on the males in the society.

With the female population, about a tenth, being basically castrated from helping that left the males. The original plan was to exploit the natives to do the labor, much like the Spanish did with the indigenous in South America [5]. That method didn't work in Virginia. In the summer of 1608 John Smith instituted a work order to get the camp into running order: fix the chapel and the storehouse, prep for incoming supplies, do drills in case of attack, institute an armed watch [6]. The men went to work a couple months before Captain Christopher Newport brought fresh supplies in October. It is probable that many that were put to work were hungry and/or disease ridden[7].

The makeup of men was from ne'er do wells to upper class gentleman to the mercenaries that these rich men brought with them [8]. The rich didn't work. These hired guns didn't work. Unless they absolutely had to; or if there was soldier work to be done [9]. No one wanted to work. Thus, why the colony fell into such disrepair, such dilapidation, into such hard times resulting in famine. However in some cases it is a bit of a Catch-22. One doesn't work if they are already suffering from malnutrition.

October 1608 of course saw Captain Newport bringing fresh supplies(and the first females). In a few years, as mentioned in prior blog postings, the tobacco cash crop fostered a gradual change for the better. With the influx of funds and new-comers niche workers such as carpenters or farmers made the trek across the Atlantic [10].

This look at progression is a bit of a marked contrast to the other major settlement in the Americas further north: Plymouth. Plymouth was a more ordered society, far more strict, in that was its natural essence: Puritan-centric, dogmatic, and self regulating. Qualities like that naturally lent to order and cohesion. They were also comprised of religious castaways, not chosen colonizers by a well to do English company [11]. Both colonies had harsh first years, but Plymouth seemed to flourish faster, habituate to the land and thrive within the first two years. Plymouth also established a lasting peace treaty with the Wampanoag Indians and their leader, Massasoit [12]. 18 women made a voyage on the Mayflower initially.The role of women was increased in that some ran bars (ordinaries) licensed by the colony or with their husbands [13]; albeit their status as subordinate to men was still intact, they were still seen as property.


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1-4. Virginia Bernhard, "Men, Women, and Children at Jamestown: Population and Gender in Early Virginia, 1607-1610," The Journal of Southern History 58, no. 4 (1992): 614-616.

5. Edmund S. Morgan, "The Labor Problem at Jamestown 1607-18," The American Historical Review 76, no. 3 (1971): 598.

6. Grace Steele Woodward, Pocahontas (Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 1969), 85.

7. Edmund S. Morgan, "The Labor Problem at Jamestown 1607-18," The American Historical Review 76, no. 3 (1971): 597.

8-10. Edmund S. Morgan, "The Labor Problem at Jamestown 1607-18," The American Historical Review 76, no. 3 (1971): 607-610.

11. James Deetz, Patrica Scott Deetz, The Times of Their Lives (New York: Anchor Books, 2001) 14.

12. James Deetz, Patrica Scott Deetz, The Times of Their Lives (New York: Anchor Books, 2001) 64.

13. James Deetz, Patrica Scott Deetz, The Times of Their Lives (New York: Anchor Books, 2001) 125.

Monday, October 6, 2008

Jamestown Expansion, Indian Retreat

Jamestown's turbulent beginnings gradually softened up. From most of its members dying of starvation or disease in the early years, as time wore on it actually began to show semblance of a burgeoning, thriving colony. By no means was this a perfect utopia, much less a clean one. By the time Samuel Argall took control as governor of Jamestown in 1617, the town was still a mess with it's buildings in disrepair, the only water well had turned rancid, and a few denizens ran off to take refuge with the native Indians [1]. The main thing that turned the colony around, besides The Virginia Company pumping more finances and fresh colonizers into the place, was tobacco. Tobacco was a major cash crop which the English indulged in fully. Tobacco means money, which means more people.

Ironically, many European nations of the time were anti-tobacco. They sought to vilify it. Echoing sentiments one might here in this day and age, tobacco was seen as a health hazard which promoted loose morals, and was akin to drunkenness [2] .1604 saw King James I attempted to ban tobacco in England through levying heavy taxes upon it. English citizens would trade it for gold with the Spanish, England's biggest rival and enemy [3]. However, Jamestown's soil was suited to growing the plant, exporting it was cheap, and those exports soon turned into profits (especially since the exports were cheaper than trading with the Spanish) [4]. By 1616 2,500 pounds were being shipped from Virginia to England. In the next 20 years some 1.5 million pounds would be shipped [5]. This changed James' tune as England was the first to vindicate tobacco as a bonafide revenue producing product [6].

When Charles I took the English throne, he saw tobacco as a means to cement the English hold in the Americas, and provide an influx of colonists [7]. To the surrounding Powhatan tribes, this did not bode well. To put it in perspective there were about 300 English at Jamestown and surrounding settlements and about 13,000 to 14,000 Indians under Powhatan, about 11-1 odds [8]. The Virginia Company instituted massive expansion,the biggest of which was prior to 1622 (the same year as Opechankeno's rebellion). Thousands of settlers eventually flooded the area [9]. New settlers began to encroach upon Indian land.

By now Powhatan had died, leaving the kingdom to his brother, and leaving Opechankeno as military chief [10]. Because of the encroachment, because settlers began establishing farms on Indian land without permission or treaties, because of the sheernumbers facing them, because of a limited food supply, Opechankeno mounted an attack [11]. 1622 saw a quarter of the colonists die in this Indian attack By then it was too late for success for the very same reasons the attack was conceived. Constant on again,off again treaties peppered Indian-Anglo relations as the Indians saw their numbers dwindle from fresh diseases and war and saw their communities pushed further away.


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1 Camilla Townsend, Pocahontas and the Powhatan Dilemma (New York: Hill and Wang, 2004), 159.
2 Joel Best, "Economic Interests and the Vindication of Deviance: Tobacco in Seventeenth Century Europe," Sociological Quarterly 20, no. 2 (1979): 173.
3 Joel Best, "Economic Interests and the Vindication of Deviance: Tobacco in Seventeenth Century Europe," Sociological Quarterly 20, no. 2 (1979): 174.
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7 Joel Best, "Economic Interests and the Vindication of Deviance: Tobacco in Seventeenth Century Europe," Sociological Quarterly 20, no. 2 (1979): 177.
8 Martin H. Quitt, "Trade and Acculturation at Jamestown, 1607-1609: The Limits of Understanding," The William and Mary Quarterly 52, no. 2 (1995): 241.
9 Martin H. Quitt, "Trade and Acculturation at Jamestown, 1607-1609: The Limits of Understanding," The William and Mary Quarterly 52, no. 2 (1995): 257-258
10 Camilla Townsend, Pocahontas and the Powhatan Dilemma (New York: Hill and Wang, 2004), 162.
11 Camilla Townsend, Pocahontas and the Powhatan Dilemma (New York: Hill and Wang, 2004), 161-163.

Sunday, September 14, 2008

Algonquin Religion

Algonquins and dialects of Algonquins were scattered from the St. Lawerence River in Canada, west to the Rocky Mountains, but tribes were also in the American landscape [1]. The central concept of their religion was the deist viewed Great Spirit, referred to in some dialects as Gitchee Manitou or Manitou [2]. "Michabou" and "Atahocan" were even more alternatives. There were an infinite number of spirits within every object and thing that still were embodied by the main god. An all encompassing, nature-power god. Further the Algonquins of Virginia called their particular spirit "Okee", having made an idolic representation of it and placed it under the care of priests in a temple, who were also the only ones allowed to see it [3].

The Algonquins of Virginia had a textured religious system. Culture and social culture were entwined with religion, not necessarily something the natives practiced like the English colonizers would, but a spirituality deeply routed in daily life and activity and personal living important to tribes. Ceremonies were not especially amalgous of the united tribe whole but represented specific ceremonial aspects of a world that includes countless ceremonies in any given tribal context, ceremonies performed by whole communities, clans, families, or individuals on a daily, periodic, seasonal, or occasional basis [4].

The religious traditions were community based and have no real meaning outside of the specific community in which the acts were performed, the war stories told or songs sung, and ceremonies conducted. Practice is very routed in the community. It is seen as something that could honor the community as a whole. That which is sacred is just that. Violations could be disastrous for the violator and the community. Every act is like a piece of a ceremony. The picking of corn, buffalo hunts, everything. Every act is for the community because of the importance of these acts that could possibly hinder the whole [5].

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1. James Lee Humfreville, and Edwin R. Sweeney, Twenty Years Among Our Hostile Indians (Mechanicsburg: Stackpole Books, 2002), 275.

2. Encarta, s.v. "Algonquian."

3.Charles Augustus Goodrich, Bernard Picart, and Colin MacKenzie, Religious Ceremonies and Customs (London: Hutchinson and Dwier, 1834), 561.

4. George E. Tinker, "Encyclopedia of North American Indians," Religion, 14 September 2008.

5. Tinker, 2008.


Saturday, August 30, 2008

Virginia's Beginnings

In the 1580s Spain was the dominant power in the New World. France, Portugal, and Spain had similar expeditions throughout the Northern U.S. and South America. In a bid to reclaim England's place in the world theater, Queen Elizabeth I granted Sir Walter Raleigh, a buccaneer, a charter to explore the area north of Spanish held Florida. Much of the Atlantic coast was named "Virginia." This was a huge swath of land from Maine to South Carolina that also included the island of Bermuda. Raleigh explored the Atlantic Coast in 1584, naming the area after the "virgin" Queen Elizabeth according to [1].

The new King of England, Charles I saw the proprietary Charter of 1606 grant land rights to the area. This was through the establishment of his Virginia Company. According to the Virginia Department of Historic Resources 1607 saw Captains Christopher Newport and John Smith lead an expedition that founded Jamestown, the first permanent English colony aside from the failed one at Roanoke [2]. The latter, John Smith, seems to get much of the limelight concerning this trek. It was he who stayed behind to lead the fledgling colony and he who was captured by the native tribe, spared by the chieftain's daughter Pocahontas, and he who saved the colony [3].

As for the natives living in this area, they were known as the Powhatans. The separate of the Algonquian-speaking people were brought under one rule by Wahunsunacock and formed the Powhatan chiefdom. Wahunsunacock took the name of the chiefdom, Powhatan, and ruled more than 32 subchiefdoms in more than 150 villages [4]. Though the English settlers encroached upon the natives' land, it wasn't until 1613 that the Anglo-Powhatan war was in full motion. 1613 also saw the kidnapping of Powhatan's daughter, Pocahontas as leverage for the return of English captives by the natives [5].

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1. Raleigh Trevelyan, Sir Walter Raleigh (New York: Macmillan, 2004), 76-80.

2. Charter of 1606, 30 August 2008,

3. Paul S. Boyer, ed., The Oxford Companion to United States History (New York: Oxford University Press, 2001), 721.

4. "Virginia Department of Historic Resources," First People: The Early Indians of Virginia, 30 August 2008,

5. Boyer, 618.